November 8, 2011

Kyrgyzstan Recent History

[source: U.S. Department of State]


Sporadic protests against widespread fraud during the parliamentary runoff elections in March 2005 erupted into calls for the government to resign. By March 24, 15,000 pro-opposition demonstrators called for the resignation of the president and his regime in Bishkek. Some injuries were reported when opposition demonstrators were attacked by police and pro-government thugs. Protestors seized the presidential administration building, after which President Akayev left the country for Kazakhstan, and then Russia. Looting broke out in parts of Bishkek on the evening of March 24, causing an estimated $100 million in damage.

Opposition leaders, caught by surprise by developments, moved to form a broadly inclusive "Committee of National Unity." Opposition leader Kurmanbek Bakiyev was named acting President and Prime Minister. Bakiyev formed an alliance with primary rival Feliks Kulov whereby Kulov agreed to drop out of the presidential race if Bakiyev appointed him Prime Minister upon winning the elections.

Bakiyev easily won the July 10, 2005 presidential elections with over 88% of the vote. An unprecedented number of domestic and international observers monitored the elections and noted significant improvements in the electoral process over the parliamentary elections, although there were some reports of irregularities.

Opposition groups held a series of demonstrations in 2006, including the entire first week of November, to protest the lack of progress on reform, in particular of the constitution, promised by President Bakiyev in 2005. The Kyrgyz parliament adopted amendments to the constitution and President Bakiyev signed the amended constitution on November 9, 2006, which limited the powers of the president and increased the role of parliament. After the government resigned on December 19, the Kyrgyz parliament voted on December 30 to adopt new amendments restoring some of the presidential powers lost in November. President Bakiyev signed the changes into law January 15, 2007.

In March 2007, President Bakiyev appointed opposition leader Almaz Atambayev as Prime Minister. A week-long opposition protest in April 2007 ended when police cleared the main Ala-Too Square in Bishkek.

In September 2007, the Constitutional Court invalidated the November 2006 and December 2006 versions of the constitution. President Bakiyev then called a snap national referendum on a new version of the constitution, which strengthened the powers of the president and provided for a parliament elected by party lists. The new constitution was approved in an October 2007 referendum that was marked by serious irregularities, including massive inflation of turnout figures. President Bakiyev then dissolved the parliament, calling for new elections. The December 2007 elections were deeply flawed, with the new pro-presidential Ak Jol party gaining 71 out of 90 seats. The largest opposition party, Ata Meken, did not gain any seats, despite probably receiving enough votes to meet the regional thresholds required to enter parliament. Following the elections, a government was formed headed by the former energy minister, Igor Chudinov, as Prime Minister.

On July 23, 2009 President Bakiyev was overwhelmingly reelected with 76% of the vote, although the OSCE noted numerous voting irregularities. In October 2009, Daniyar Usenov was nominated as Prime Minister. Protests in April 2010 in the town of Talas and in Bishkek ousted Bakiyev and his government from office. A provisional government headed by President Roza Otunbayeva took office in April and navigated through brief but intense interethnic clashes in June 2010 to organize a referendum on June 27, 2010, by which voters approved a new constitution. The referendum also confirmed Otunbayeva as President until December 31, 2011.

The 2010 constitution is intended to limit presidential power and enhance the role of parliament and the prime minister. Parliamentary elections were held in October 2010. The elections were highly competitive and peaceful, Five parties entered parliament, led by the Ata Jurt party (28 seats), and followed by the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (26 seats), Ar-Namys (25 seats), Respublika (23 seats) and Ata-Meken (18 seats). Three parties (Ata Jurt, SDPK, and Respublika) formed a governing coalition with Almaz Atambayev as prime minster. A presidential election is to be held on October 30, 2011, followed by a second round with the top two candidates if no candidate receives more than 50 percent of the vote in the first round.


The 2010 constitution defines the Kyrgyz Republic as a sovereign, democratic, secular, unitary, and social state. The executive branch is headed by the prime minister and government, though the president retains numerous constitutional powers as head of state. The judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court and local courts. The legislative branch is composed of a 120-member unicameral parliament.

President Otunbayeva made the case for the 2010 constitution as an attempt to break with political tradition in Central Asia and limit the excesses of presidentialism in Kyrgyzstan in particular. [I APPLAUD her for having the courage and strength to put the people in her country first over labor union influence and marxist corrupt politicians! (emphasis mine)]

[source: Labor Union Survey as of 2007]

Kyrgyzstan: Approximately 94 per cent of all workers belong to a union, and both private and public sector workers are union members. There is considerable dialogue between the government and trade unions. [This is why they have had problems in the past. Because the public sector union employees keep voting in the politicians who will grant them obscene unsustainable wages and pensions, even if it means CRIPPLING THEIR ECONOMY and causing PUBLIC SERVICES offered to the general population to suffer! The union bosses control the government NOT THE GENERAL POPULATION! Union bosses don't care about budgets or being fiscally responsible! Like the mafia, they name their price and you better find a way to deliver on their demands or else they will hand your head on a platter. Like I've written before, in a Marxist government ONLY government officials, government labor union employees and the corporate elite with ties to the government prosper. The remaining population which is usually the opposition, has to literally fend for themselves to survive, are made political prisoners forced into hard labor concentration camps or killed. Mexico, China, Cuba, Venezuela to name a few are good examples. If that way of life is so great, why are they dying to come live in the United States! Although, I have to say that the CRONY-capitalism and labor unions government control in America are getting to appear much like Marxism! (emphasis mine)]

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